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Ap World History 8000 BCE – 1750 CE Timeline

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Julie Silverman

on 7 January 2016

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Transcript of Ap World History 8000 BCE – 1750 CE Timeline

AP World History 8000 BCE – 1750 CE Timeline
By: Julie Silverman
8000 BCE:
The Neolithic Revolution

-It was a major turning point in human history
-Instead of nomads hunting and gathering, they shifted to depending on domesticated animals and plants (agriculture)
-This caused people to form permanent settlements, instead of roaming nomadically

Effects of the Neolithic Revolution
-The use of agriculture led people to settle along rivers, such as the Yellow, the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Indus Rivers.
-This caused more complex civilizations (River Valley Civilizations) to form such as in Egypt, China, Mesopotamia, and India.

Mesopotamia:
3500 BCE – 900 BCE

-They developed the first form of writing, known as cuneiform
-They created irrigation systems to benefit agriculture
-They formed a social hierarchy and a government
-They practiced polytheism
-They developed the wheel

Sumerians
-Mesopotamia lacking natural boundaries (such as mountain ranges) soon fell to the Akkadians and the Babylonians
Babylonians
-They spread Sumerian culture
-They created the first code of laws in 1500 BCE, known as The Code of Hammurabi
-The Code of Hammurabi presented laws based on social structure differences in Babylonia
Sculpture with The Code of Hammurabi carved into it- Located at the Louvre in Paris
After 900 BCE, the Assyrians and the Persians took over Mesopotamia
Egypt:
3000 BCE
-Practiced polytheism
-Hieroglyphics were developed as a result of trading with the Sumerians (cultural diffusion of their cuneiform)
-Deserts that surrounded Egypt protected them from invading peoples, allowing their civilization to thrive for many years
The Shang Dynasty:
1766 – 1122 BCE
-Located in the Huang He river valley, the Shang dynasty was the most isolated of all of the River Valley Civilizations
-Deserts, the Himalayas, and oceans are all natural boundaries that isolated the Shang Dynasty
-Had complex iron and bronze working
-They practiced polytheism
-They fell to the Zhou Dynasty in 1122 BCE
-The Zhou claimed that they could overtake the Shang through the "Mandate of Heaven" (the divine right to rule given by gods)

Classical China
The Zhou Dynasty:
1029 – 258 BCE
-Used feudalism to rule (land=service)
-Expansionism
-Advanced in silk making
-Produced the first books
-Confucianism and Daoism were created
-Established traditions, such as the "Mandate of Heaven" and the dynastic cycle (or the thought that new kingdoms rise and fall, due to the Mandate of Heaven)
The Qin Dynasty:
221-202 BCE
-After a period of disorder in China, the Qin dynasty replaced the Zhou
-Shi Huangdi was their ruler
-Building of the Great Wall
-Abolished feudalism
-Put forth legalism (full political control)
-The death of Shi Huangdi led to their collapse, along with anger over heavy taxes and the revolution of the lower class

Terracotta soldiers made to accompany Shi Huangdi in his tomb
PERIOD 1 (Technological and Environmental Transformations): to 600 BCE
PERIOD 2 (Oranization and Reorganization of Human Societies): 600 BCE – 600 CE
Han Dynasty:
200 BCE – 220 CE
-They practiced mostly Confucianism
-Confucian scholars were appointed as advisors
-It was the Golden Age of Classical China
-They had civil service exams based on meritocracy for government officials
-The Silk Road was created to transfer silk to nomadic rulers, to secure alliances with them
-The emperor of the Han struggled to control rulers of land; as a result the dynasty became very decentralized and collapsed when the nomads took over
Classical India:
321 BCE – 550 CE
The Mauryan Empire:
321 – 185 BCE
-Had a bureaucracy
-279-232 BCE Ashoka ruled the Mauryan empire
-Ashoka converted the Mauryan Empire to Buddhism and prospered as a powerful leader
-Ashoka built an extensive series of roads, in which he spread his ideas of Buddhism
-Also, he created stone pillars to place their laws on (known as the Pillars of Ashoka)
The Gupta Empire:
320-550 CE
-After the Mauryan empire fell, the Gupta empire took over
-The Gupta rulers practiced Hinduism, but Buddhism was also tolerated
-Their government was decentralized
-Achievements: religious education, advanced in architecture, created the concept of zero, and were medically advanced.
-The achievements of the Gupta formed a base for Indian culture, long after their decline
Ancient Greece:
800 BCE – 476 CE
-800 BCE Phoenician sailors arrived at Greek mainland where the Phoenician alphabet was adapted (through cultural diffusion)
-The rugged terrain prevented a centralized government
-As a result, Greece became separate city states
-The most known were Athens and Sparta
Athens
Sparta
-Known for their accomplishments
-Athens was an aristocracy at first, but soon began to change into a democracy
-Pericles ruled Athens from 443 to 429 BCE
-During his time, Athens was considered at its golden age
-This was due to their accomplishments in science, philosophy, architecture, education, and art.
-Their economy was mostly trade based

The Parthenon was built around 440 BCE to replace a temple destroyed by the Persians in 447 BCE during the Persian Wars
-Sparta had an aristocratic government that mainly focused on militarism
-Their economy was mostly agriculturally based, therefore, they depended heavily on slaves

-Language
-Greek mythology
-Olympic Games
-Both fought in the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars
The Peloponnesian War
Causes of the Peloponnesian War
Effects of the Peloponnesian War
-They had different forms of government(Athens=democracy and Sparta=oligarchy; freedom vs. control)
-Athenian control of the Delian League (a group whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persians, even after Greek victory at the end of the Persian Wars)
The plague that spread over Athens led to their defeat
-It ended Athenian greatness and caused their corruption
-Democracy struggled in Greece, as a result the Spartan Oligarchy took over
-Macedonia came to power (Alexander the Great)
-Sparta was weakened and later defeated by Thebes
The Hellenistic Empire
The war between Athens and Sparta
-Alexander the Great used expansionism to conquer many lands, including Greece, Eygpt and Persia
-He united and blended these cultures into one called Hellenistic culture
-Long-distance trade flourished, along with accomplishments in mathematics, science and art
Ancient Rome
-In 146 BCE, the Roman conquest of the Greek peninsula ended the Hellenistic Age
-Julius Caesar came into power in 45 BCE and dissolved the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire
-27 BCE – 180 CE was known as Pax Romana (Roman Peace)
-During this time they built bridges, aqueducts, and roads that connected Rome to the Silk Road
-The new religion, Christianity, was able to spread easily through the empire because of the roads
-They had a law code called the Twelve Tables, which have impacted our legal traditions
The Colosseum was built during Pax Romana in 70 CE
The Mayans
-Located in present-day Guatemala and Belize, the Mayans reached their height in 300 CE
-They practiced polytheism
-They were advanced in architecture, along with developing irrigation systems, the 365 day calendar and creating a number system
The Umayyad Caliphate:
661-750 CE
-The Umayyad family came into power in 600 CE
-Damascus was their capital
-They were Sunni Muslims
-The ruling families living luxuriously led to riots among the general people, and the overthrowing of the Umayyads

PERIOD 3 (Regional and Transregional Interactions): 600 CE – 1450 CE
The Dome of the Rock: A Muslim shrine built in the 7th century, during the Umayyad Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate:
750-1258 CE
-Their capital was Baghdad
-They were Shia Muslims
-It was considered the Islamic Golden Age
-Some of their accomplishments included: the astrolabe, mathematics, science, trade, the Arabian Nights, and architecture.
-Over expansionism led to their downfall
-They were conquered by the Seljuk Turks

Islam Spreads to Africa
-In the eighth century, Islamic holy war brought Islam to Africa
-Caravan routes of trade helped spread the word of Islam quickly
-In West Africa, the kingdoms of Ghana and Mali both converted to Islam in the 10th and 13th centuries
-Ibn Battuta, an Arab traveler, journeyed throughout the world of Islam in the 14th century. His records explain the spread of Islam throughout Africa

Chinese Dynasties:
581-1279 CE
Tang Dynasty 618-907 CE
-Confucianism was used in their government (civil service exams)
-They practiced Buddhism and Daoism
-They built canals to encourage trade
-Rebellion spread throughout the Tang
-In result nomads began to invade due to the Tang’s weakness
Song Dynasty:
960-1279 CE
-It was known as the Golden Age of China
-They developed the compass, the spinning wheel, junks (multiple sailed ships), movable type, and gunpowder

-Practiced Buddhism, Daoism, and Neo-Confucianism

-They created flying money for long-distance trade

Sinification:
China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
-Sinification: the spread of Chinese culture
-Cultural aspects such as civil service exams, Buddhism, tea ceremonies, and irrigation techniques spread throughout China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam due to trade interactions
Japenese tea ceremonies spread through sinification
Feudalism in Western Europe & English Government
-After the fall of the Roman Empire, Western Europe was left unstabilized. Eastern Europe became the Byzantine Empire
-As a result, Western Europe fell into feudalism
-The government was very decentralized due to manorialism
-The only aspect that kept Western Europe stabilized was the Roman Catholic Church
Peasants and knights were given land to live on, in return for service.
The Feudal System
-Before 1215, the rulers of England had an imposing amount of power
-In 1215, the Magna Carta was signed by King John to limit his power of raising taxes
-The first English parliament was held in 1265 to limit the power of the monarchy
-Soon parliaments began to spread to other territories, such as Spain and France
The Crusades
1096 – 1204 CE
-Religious conflict between Christianity and Islam
-The contact between Islam and Christianity led to more trade/cultural diffusion
Church Vs. State
-During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church grew extremely wealthy and powerful
-As a result, conflict rose between the church and the state (over investiture)
-This later culminated in the excommunication of Henry IV

-The process in which monarchs appointed church bishops
The High Middle Ages:
1000 – 1400 CE
The Renaissance: 1300 – 1600 CE
-Beginning in the 11th century, Western Europe emerged from its decline

-Accomplishments: Gothic architecture, urbanization, formation of universities, centralized monarchies
Built in 1200 CE in Paris, the Notre Dame is an example of Gothic architecture during this time period.
-Rebirth of learning and culture
-Started in Italy in 1300 CE and later spread throughout the rest of Western Europe in 1400 CE
-Cause: the Crusades influenced trade and the revival of learning
Renaissance Accomplishments
-The works of Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo (mural in the Sistine Chapel), William Shakespeare, and Niccolo Machiavelli (The Prince)
-Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press
The Mongols
(the Yuan Dynasty: 1271 – 1368 CE)
-Began as a group of nomads
-Used militarism and expansionism to conquer China, Persia, and Russia
-Largest land empire in history
-traded between Europe and Asia (spread bubonic plague to three continents)
-Chinggis Khan- In 1206 CE he was elected the ultimate ruler
-He focused mainly on fighting on horseback
-By doing this, the Mongols controlled an empire that stretched from northern China to eastern Persia by 1227

-They expanded into Russia in 1237
-By 1271, Kubilai Khan; descendant of Chinggis Khan, controlled the remnants of the Song Empire and renamed it the
Yuan Dynasty

-Pax Mongolia: Period of time between mid-thirteenth to the mid-fourteenth centuries that was a time of cultural diffusion and advancement, due to the reopening of the Silk Road
Height of the Mongol Empire in the 14th Century
Aztecs: 1325 – 1520 CE
Incas: 1300 – 1533 CE
-They both rose in Mesoamerica
-Agriculture was important to their economy (terrace farming)
-Had tribute empires
-Practiced polytheism and human sacrifice
-They were both conquered in the 16th century by Spanish conquistadors (Aztecs: Hernán Cortés and Incas: Francisco Pizarro)
Age of Exploration: 1450 – 1750 CE
PERIOD 4 (Global Interactions): 1450 – 1750 CE
-In the early 15th century, Europeans were in search of a water passage through Africa to directly reach Asia
-Instead, Christopher Columbus accidentally found the Americas in 1492
-During the Age of Exploration, civilizations such as the Aztecs and Incas were conquered and replaced with European rulings
-As a result, Mesoamerican culture blended with European culture (Spanish American social structure based off of origin of birth)
-As explorers began to travel long-distance over the oceans, they began to trade goods with new civilizations
-Technological inventions such as the caravel, the magnetic compass, and the astrolabe were improved

The Russian Empire:
1480 – 1917 CE
Bantu Migration:
2000 BCE – 1500 CE
-Created a basic structure for African culture
-Spread language and agricultural techniques
-First large form of cultural diffusion

-Invasion of Mongols in 1480 led Russia into an absolute monarchy
-Ivan the Great and Ivan the Terrible helped expand Russia into Siberia and Poland
-In 1613 the Romanov dynasty took over
-In 1689, Peter the Great came into power and introduced Western ideas
-Moved capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg to encourage trade
-Serfdom kept Russia focused on agricultural production
-Catherine the Great (ruling from 1729 to 1796), continued to use Western ideas and expansionism of Peter the Great
-She also brought ideas of the Enlightenment to Russia

Ming China:
1368 – 1644 CE
-Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, who rebelled against the Mongols and replaced them with his dynasty
-Confucian-based civil service exams were used
-Neo-Confucianism (supported strict obedience to the state) increased its influence
Ruled from 1405 to 1423 CE
Encouraged exploration and trade
Sailed through the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and the Persian Gulf
By the 1430s, Ming leaders were persuaded into thinking that the expeditions were too costly and not beneficial
Zheng He
The Ming Dynasty later fell to the Qing dynasty after incompetent leaders took control of China
Columbian Exchange: 1450 – 1750 CE
Slave Trade: 1500 – 1750 CE
-Interactions between civilizations during the Age of Exploration caused an increase of trans-Atlantic trade
-New crops, livestock, and diseases were exchanged over the Columbian Exchange
-Interactions between people through the Columbian Exchange led to slaves being traded from Africa to the Americas
-It peaked in the 18th century
-Slaves were used for mostly agricultural labor
-It affected Africa by reducing its population by 50% and lessening the development of African civilizations
The Protestant Reformation
The Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation)
-Indulgences in the Roman Catholic Church angered people into forming ideas of the Protestant Reformation
-1517: Martin Luther, a former monk, nailed the Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg (Germany) after resentment of the Roman Catholic Church’s greediness
-John Calvin, another reformer, formed the religion Calvinism which is known for the idea of predestination
-Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press in 1440 allowed the ideas of Protestantism to spread throughout Europe
The sale of documents that granted the purchaser the forgiveness of sins
Religions in Europe 1200 and 1600 CE
-As a result of the Protestant Reformation, the sale of indulgences were abandoned
-To reclaim followers of Catholicism, Jesuits were sent to the Americas and Asia to serve the Church with missionary and educational work
Scientific Revolution: 1600 – 1800 CE
Enlightenment: 1650 – 1800 CE
-This period of time was based on the nature of the universe
-It included thinkers such as
Copernicus
,
Galileo
,
Newton
, and
Kepler
Heliocentric Theory
Galileo’s telescope that he used to observe planetary motion
Newton’s gravity formula that he created
Kepler created the 3 laws of planetary motion and discovered that planetary orbits were elliptical
-It was an extension of achievements after the Scientific Revolution
-It was based on the idea of
humanism
(the focus on human accomplishments and philosophies)
-The beginning of the Enlightenment began in France
Enlightenment Thinkers
John Locke
: Life, Liberty, and Property (Natural Rights)
Jean Jacques Rousseau
: People are born naturally good, but society can turn them bad
Mary Wollstonecraft
: Political rights for women
Adam Smith
: Laissez-faire capitalism
Denis Diderot
: Created the first encyclopedia
Voltaire
: Freedom of speech
Montesquieu
: 3 branches of government
and checks and balances

Causes of the French Revolution
-Louis XIV building the Palace of Versailles
-Seven Years’ War
-American Revolution
-Drought in the 1780s
-Absolutism=rebellion
-The Estates-General (illusion of power for the majority of people)
1789 – 1799
Byzantine Empire: 330 – 1453 CE
-The Eastern part of Europe during this time was known as the Byzantine empire (founded by Constantine)
-Their capital was Constantinople
-They practiced Orthodox Christianity
– Justinian created a code of laws, along with the building of the Hagia Sophia (with his wife Theodora)

Full transcript

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    AP World History Chronology Timeline

    • Print

    Main

    Mesopotamian River Valley Civilization

    10,000 B.C. – 6,000 B.C.

    Neolithic Revolution

    8,000 BCE – 5,000 BCE

    Indus River Valley Civilization

    3,300 BCE – 1,300 BCE

    Egyptian River Valley Civilization

    3,000 BCE – 2,000 BCE

    Mayan Civilization

    2,000 BCE – 900 BCE

    Yellow Civilization/Shang Dynasty

    1600 BCE – 1046 BCE

    Olmecs

    1500 BC – 400 BC

    Aryan Invasion/Vedic Age

    1500 BC – 600 BC

    Zhou Dynasty

    1027 BCE – 221 BCE

    Start of Buddhism

    600 BCE

    Start of Taoism

    600 BCE

    Classical Greece

    510 BCE – 323 BCE

    Bantu Migration

    500 BCE – 1,000 ce

    China’s Warring States Period

    480 BCE – 221 BCE

    Start of Confucianism

    479 BCE

    Rise of Qin Empire

    221 BCE

    Rise of Han Empire

    206 BCE

    Takeover of Roman Emperor Augustus

    31 BCE – 476 CE

    Start of Roman Empire

    27 CE

    Start of Christianity

    33 CE

    Spread of Buddhism to China

    67 CE

    Fall of Han Empire

    189 CE – 220 CE

    Fall of Western Roman Empire

    285 CE – 476 CE

    Kingdom of Ghana

    300 CE – 1000 CE

    Byzantine Empire

    300 CE – 1453 CE

    Christianity Official Religion of Rome

    300 CE

    Emperor Constantine Edict of Toleration

    311 CE

    Arrival of Bananas in Africa

    500 CE

    Sui Dynasty

    581 CE – 618 CE

    Tang Dynasty

    618 CE – 907 CE

    Start of Islam

    622 AD

    Umayyad Caliphate

    661 CE – 750 CE

    Abbasid Caliphate

    750 CE – 1258 AD

    Toltecs

    800 CE – 1000 CE

    European Feudalism

    800 CE – 1400 CE

    Song Dynasty

    960 CE – 1279 CE

    Muslim Invasions in India

    1200 CE – 1500 CE

    Kingdom of Mali

    1200 CE – 1450 CE

    Aztec Empire

    1300 CE – 1500 CE

    Incan Empire

    1438 CE – 1533 CE

    Kingdom of Songhai

    1450 CE – 1590 CE

    Height of East African City States

    1505 CE – 1880 CE

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